Fossil Clausiliidae

Fossil Clausiliidae

Fossil Clausiliidae from Europe are known since the Upper Cretaceous and traced through the Tertiary and Quaternary.

In contrast to several other fossil stylommatophoran groups, relationships of fossil Clausiliidae to other ones and to extant groups can be recognized with high probability, because they are highly diverse and rich in characters, especially of their closing apparatus.

Rich representative faunas of fossil Clausiliidae allow conclusions to climate and vegetation; changes of clausiliid faunas are the result of climatic changes.

As a rule, because of their high evolutionary rate, fossil Clausiliidae have a small stratigraphic range. Therefore, in comparison with other stylommatophoran groups, they have a high biostratigraphic value.

Fossil Clausiliidae give keys for the reconstruction of the evolution of the family, because relationships to extant species can be recognized (see 2.) and appearance dates (first and last ones) can be stated.
Nevertheless, there are several extinct clausiliid groups the relationships of which are unclear, especially if the material is scarce and essential characters cannot be examined.

List of fossil Clausiliidae

Hartmut Nordsieck (III.2021)

A revised genus list of fossil Clausiliidae from western Palaearctic (except Anatolia) with stratigraphic ranges is given as follows:

Phaedusinae A. J. Wagner 1922

Former Serrulininae

Serrulellini H. Nordsieck 2007
Serrulella H. Nordsieck (in Zilch) 1978 (Burdigalian – Early Pleistocene)
Serrulastra H. Nordsieck 1981 (Aquitanian – Pliocene)
(S. (Serrulastra), S. (Serruplica) H. Nordsieck 1981, S. (Serrustigma) H. Nordsieck 1981)

Nordsieckiini H. Nordsieck 2007
Nordsieckia Truc 1972 (Tortonian – Pliocene)
Note: Nordsieckia has a much plesiomorphic shell with columellar lamellae in the upper whorls (Nordsieck 2015: fig. 8).

New tribe
Serruluna H. Nordsieck 1981 (Pliocene – Early Pleistocene)
Note: According to the completed diagnosis (Nordsieck 2013) Serruluna is not related to Nordsieckia (contrary to Nordsieck 2007).

Serrulinini Ehrmann 1927
Pravispira Lindholm 1924 (Early Pleistocene)

Ciscaucasian former Serrulininae (see Steklov 1966)

Uncertain tribe
Euxinophaedusa Likharev 1962 (Serravallian – Tortonian)

Serrulinini Ehrmann 1927
Serrulina Mousson 1873 (Tortonian)
Pravispira Lindholm 1924 (Tortonian)
(P. (Pravispira), Pravispira sensu Likharev 1962 = P. n. subgen.)
Pontophaedusa sensu Likharev 1962 = n. gen. (Tortonian)
Notes: Two species described by Likharev (: 303-306) are different from the genera or subgenera, respectively, with which he has affiliated them.
Serrulina (Pravispiranazranica looks like a Pravispira species, but differs from the other species of the genus by the decollate shell and the presence of only two palatal plicae; its clausilium plate is without inner fold. For it a new subgenus is erected.
Pontophaedusa praefuniculum differs much from Pfuniculum by a higher superior and less protruding inferior lamella, the presence of three palatal plicae (lower one misinterpreted as lunella by Likharev) and the gutter-like clausilium plate. Because in the Caucasian region the plicae type of lunellar is only found in Serrulinini species, the new genus is temptatively classified with that tribe.

Laminiferinae Wenz 1923

Laminifera O. Boettger 1863 (Thanetian – Burdigalian)
(L. (Palaeophaedusa) Wenz 1920, L. (Laminifera))
Omanifera H. Nordsieck 2015 (Priabonian)
Baboria Cossmann 1898 (Burdigalian)
Laminiplica H. Nordsieck 1978 (Pliocene)

Oospiroidini H. Nordsieck 2007
Oospiroides Wenz 1920 (Thanetian – Ypresian)

Polloneriini H. Nordsieck 2007
Polloneria Sacco 1886 (Pliocene – Early Pleistocene)

Eualopiinae H. Nordsieck 1978

Rillyini H. Nordsieck 1985
Proalbinaria O. Boettger (in Oppenheim) 1895 (Maastrichtian)
Rillyopsis H. Nordsieck 1985 (Thanetian)
Rillya Munier-Chalmas (in P. Fischer) 1883 (Thanetian – Ypresian?)
Pararillya H. Nordsieck 2002 (Thanetian)
Rillyella H. Nordsieck 2002 (Thanetian)
Rillya sensu auct. incertae sedis (Thanetian – Lutetian)
Neniopsis Wenz 1920 (Thanetian – early Rupelian)
Rillyarex H. Nordsieck 1985 (Priabonian)
Omanyllia H. Nordsieck 2015 (Priabonian)
Neniopsilla H. Nordsieck 2020 (Priabonian)

Disjunctariini H. Nordsieck 2014
Note: Unlike former Serrulininae, Disjunctariini have an adnate peristome like the Eualopiinae. Therefore and because of their age (Middle Eocene) they are classified with that subfamily. Recent findings of well-preserved shells in the Roncà layers (Zamberlan w. c.) confirm this classification, because one of the species contained (Dsatyrus Oppenheim) is very similar to Eualopia.
Disjunctaria O. Boettger 1877 (Bartonian)

Eualopia O. Boettger 1877 (Aquitanian)

New tribe
Monoptychia H. Nordsieck 1972 (Pliocene)
(M. (Monoptychia), M. (Protoptychia) H. Nordsieck 2007)
Note: The differences in shell characters (Nordsieck 2007: 173) and the large stratigraphical gap to other Eualopiinae speak for a tribe separation of Monoptychia.

Constrictinae H. Nordsieck 1981
Constricta O. Boettger 1877 (Chattian – Serravallian)
Regiclausilia H. Nordsieck 1981 (Serravallian)

Alopiinae A. J. Wagner 1913

Protriloba H. Nordsieck 2014 (Serravallian – Tortonian)
Note: The shell characters of Protriloba would also fit the tribe Macedonicini.

Cochlodinini Lindholm 1925 (1923)
Cochlodina A. Férussac 1821(Burdigalian – recent)
(C. (Miophaedusa) H. Nordsieck 1972, C. (Procochlodina) H. Nordsieck 1969, C. (Cochlodina), C. (Paracochlodina) H. Nordsieck 1969)


Mentissoidea sensu Likharev 1962 (Tortonian)
Elia H. Adams & A. Adams 1855 (Pliocene)
(E. (Caucasica) O. Boettger 1877)

Emarginariini H. Nordsieck 2007
Emarginaria O. Boettger 1877 (Burdigalian – Pliocene)

Truciella H. Nordsieck 1978 (Messinian – Pliocene)
Ruthenica Lindholm 1924 (Pliocene – recent)
Canalicia O. Boettger 1863 (Rupelian?, Chattian – Burdigalian)
Pseudidyla O. Boettger 1877 (Burdigalian – Serravallian)
(P. (Pseudidyla), P. (Canaliciella) H. Nordsieck 1981)
Trolliella H. Nordsieck 1981 (Serravallian)
Macrogastra Hartmann 1841 (Serravallian – recent)
(M. (Macrogastra), M. (Macrogastrella) n. subgen., M. (Pyrostoma) Vest 1867)
Clausilia Draparnaud 1805 (Serravallian – recent)
(C. (Hollabrunnella) H. Nordsieck 2007, C. (Clausilia), C. (Lombardiella) H. Nordsieck 2013, C. (Neostyriaca) A. J. Wagner 1920)
Parafusulus H. Nordsieck 2007 (Pliocene)
Pliodiptychia H. Nordsieck 1978 (Pliocene)
Fusulus Fitzinger 1833 (Pliocene – recent)
(F. (Pliofusulus) H. Nordsieck 2013, F. (Fusulus))

Baleini A. J. Wagner 1913
Quadriplicata O. Boettger 1878 (Tortonian – Pliocene)
Laeviphaedusa sensu Likharev & Steklov 1965 = n. gen. (Tortonian)
Note: Laeviphaedusa miocaenica Likharev & Steklov 1965 belongs certainly not to Laeviphaedusa, but to a genus of its own. Its smaller and ribbed shell is not semiapostrophic like in Lhyrcanica. The lunellar is much different: lower palatal plica with posterior part, anterior part well-developed, anterior upper palatal plica and palatal callus present. It does not resemble to any group of former Serrulininae. Because of its prominent anterior lower palatal plica, keel furrow and palatal callus it is tentatively classified with the Baleini.
Laciniaria Hartmann 1842 (Middle Pleistocene – recent)
Alinda H. Adams & A. Adams 1855 (Late Pleistocene – recent)
Strigillaria Vest 1867 (Early Pleistocene – recent)
(S. (Strigillaria))


Likharev, I. M. (1962): Klauziliidy (Clausiliidae). – In: Fauna SSSR, Molljuski, 3 (4): 317 pp. Moskva & Leningrad.

Nordsieck, H. (2007): Worldwide Door Snails (Clausiliidae), recent and fossil. – 214 pp., 20 pls. Hackenheim (ConchBooks).

Nordsieck, H. (2013): Clausiliidae (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora) from the Villafranchian site Monte Serampoli (Lower Valdarno, Tuscany, Italy). – Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 142 (2): 237-244.

Nordsieck, H. (2015): Fossil Clausilioidea in space and time, with special emphasis on Cretaceous and pre-Oligocene Cenozoic Clausiliidae (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora). – Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 144 (1): 83-97.

Steklov, A. A. (1966): Nazemnye molljuski neogena predkavkasja i ih stratigrafičeskoe značenje (Terrestrial Neogene mollusks of Ciscaucasia and their stratigraphic importance). – Transactions of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Geological Institute, 163: 262 pp., 14 pls. Moskva.