Genital studies

Genital studies

Report on genital studies of European Clausiliidae

Hartmut Nordsieck (XII. 2020, updated XI. 2021)

I. General remarks, Material and methods
Like in other stylommatophoran families the genitalia of the species of Clausiliidae, especially the copulatory organs, are of high taxonomic importance and thus of interest for phylogenetic studies. Therefore, in the course of my work on European Clausiliidae I studied the genitalia of more than 300 species of all subfamilies (see following list) by describing and measuring the preparations, which I had made from alcohol material of these species (1-2, in part more specimens prepared). The material used and the preparations are stored in the Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart (SMNS) and the Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg Frankfurt am Main (SMF).
In this article my former papers on genital morphology are cited by the publication years.
The material comprises the following genera (in brackets number of examined species):

Former Serrulininae:
Pontophaedusa (1), Pontophaedusella (1), Laeviphaedusa (1),
Caspiophaedusa (1), Pravispira (1), Dobatia (1), Serrulina (2).

Neniatlanta (1).

For the tribe system see article on DNA studies.
Alopiini (sensu lato):
Carinigera (16), Isabellaria (8), Albinaria (32), Inchoatia (3), Cristataria (6),
Medora (9), Agathylla (8), Lampedusa (1), Muticaria (1), Leucostigma (1),
Strigilodelima (1), Montenegrina (10), Protoherilla (1), Herilla (7), Alopia (20).
Cochlodina (14).
Charpentieria (5), Siciliaria (18), Papillifera (2), Delima (16), Dilataria (3), Barcania (1).
Macedonica group:
Macedonica (13).
Triloba group:
Triloba (2).

Former Mentissoideinae + Graciliaria:
Boettgeria (6), Euxinella (1), Olympicola (1), Filosa (1), Scrobifera (1),
Strigileuxina (2), Sumelia (2), Akramowskia (1), Acrotoma (2),
Roseniella (2), Armenica (5), Inobseratella (2), Phrygica (2), Sprattia (3),
Euxina (8), Elia (7), Euxinastra (2), Galeata (3), Mentissoidea (1),
Idyla (3), Graciliaria (1), Micridyla (1).
Ruthenica (1), Pseudofusulus (1), Erjavecia (1),
Julica (1), Macrogastra (10), Clausilia (10), Erjaveciella (1), Fusulus (1).
Quadriplicata (3), Mucronaria (3), Likharevia (1), Micropontica (1), Mentissa (1), Mentissella (1),
Laciniaria (3), Alinda (4), Pseudalinda (4), Vestia (4), Pavlovicia (2), Balea (4), Strigillaria (3), Bulgarica (11).

For definition and terms of the parts of the copulatory organs see 2007 (: chapter I: 9-11, 16, appendix 2: 178-180). The terms proximal and distal are used as seen from the gonad.
The measurements were made as exactly as possible making use of an ocular micrometer (accuracy ± 0.1 mm). Before measuring the preparations were stretched as far as possible without tearing and fixed by micropins without piercing. It is important for measurements to know about the limitation of the parts (see Fig. 1). The limitation of the female parts are given by the branchings. The limitation of the male parts are more difficult to make out, especially in groups in which they are more or less modified (former Serrulininae, Clausiliini, Baleini). They are located by changes of the lumen and the wall structure.

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